The following is a provisional biography of academic sources relevant to the SINOIRAN project. Last updated: 07 September 2022.

Adachi Kiroku 足立喜六. 1942a. Dai Tō seiiki guhō kōsō den 大唐西域求法高僧傳. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.

———. 1942b. Dai Tō seiiki no kenkyū 大唐西域記の研究. Tokyo: Hozokan.

Agostini, Domenico. 2019. “Non-Iranian Historical Lands in Pahlavi Literature.” Bulletin of SOAS 82, no. 3: 453–472.

Agostini, Domenico and Sören Stark. 2016. “Zāwulistān, Kāwulistan and the Land Bosi 波斯 – On the Question of a Sasanian Court-in-Exile in the Southern Hindukush.” Studia Iranica 45, no. 1: 17–38.

Akin, Alexander. 1999. “The Jing Xing Ji of Du Huan: Notes on the West by a Chinese Prisoner of War.” Harvard Middle Eastern and Islamic Review 5: 77-102.

Aoki Takeshi. 2015. “Zoroastrianism in the Far East.” In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism, ed. Michael Strausberg and Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina, 147–156. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Attwood, Jayarava. 2012. “Possible Iranian Origins for the Śākyas and Aspects of Buddhism.” Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies 3: 47-69.

Barbieri-Low, Anthony J. and Robin D.S. Yates. 2015. Law, State, and Society in Early Imperial China: Volume I. Leiden: Brill.

Bartholomae, Christian. 1979. Altiranisches Worterbuch: zusammen mit den nacharbeiten und vorabeiten. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Benite, Zvi. 2010. “Follow the White Camel: Islam in China to 1800.” In The New Cambridge History of Islam, Volume 3: The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries, edited by David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid, 409–426. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bedrossian, Matthias. 1879. New Dictionary Armenian-English. Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy.

BeDuhn, Jason. 2015. “Mani and the Crystallization of the Concept of ‘Religion’ in Third Century Iran.” In Mani at the Court of the Persian Kings: Studies on the Chester Beatty Kephalaia Codex, edited by Iain Gardner, Jason BeDuhn, and Paul Dilley, 247–75. Leiden: Brill.

Benveniste, Émile. 1964. “Sur la terminologie iranienne du sacrifice.” Journal Asiatique 252: 45–58.

Blois, François de. 1996. “The Persian Calendar.” Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 34: 39–54.

Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, trans. 1999. The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume V: The Sāsānids, the Byzantines, the Lakhmids, and Yemen. Albany: State University of New York Press.

———. 2003. “ḤIRA.” Encyclopedia Iranica.

Boyce, Mary. 1986. “ARSACIDS iv. Arsacid religion.” Encyclopaedia Iranica II, no. 5, 540–541.

Boyce, Mary. 2011. “AHURA MAZDĀ.” In Encyclopædia Iranica, I/7, 684–687. Online edition:

Brock, S.P. 2008. “Syriac Views of Emergent Islam.” In The Expansion of the Early Islamic State, ed. Fred M. Donner, 313–330. London: Routledge.

Bronkhorst, Johannes. 2016. How the Brahmins Won: From Alexander to the Guptas. Leiden: Brill.

Budge, Earnest Alfred Wallis, trans. 1927. The Book of the Cave of Treasures: A History of the Patriarchs and the Kings, their Successors, from the Creation to the Crucifixion of Christ, Translated from the Syriac Text of the British Museum ms. Add. 25875, by Sir E.A. Wallis Budge. London: Religious Tract Society.

Burns, Ross. 2019. Damascus: A History (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Buyaner, David B. 2020. “On the Etymology of the Old Iranian Term for ‘Iron’.” In Zaraθuštrōtәma: Zoroastrian and Iranian Studies in Honour of Philip G. Kreyenbroek, ed. Shervin Farridnejad, 51–67. Leiden: Brill.

Cameron, Judith, Agustijanto Indrajaya, and Pierre-Yves Manguin. 2015. “Asbestos Textiles from Batujaya (West Java, Indonesia): Further Evidence for Early Long-Distance Interaction between the Roman Orient, Southern Asia and Island Southeast Asia.” Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient 101: 159–176.

Campany, Robert Ford. 2003. “On the Very Idea of Religions (In the Modern West and in Early Medieval China).” History of Religions 42, no. 4: 287–319.

Chaffee, John. 2018. The Muslim Merchants of Pre-Modern China: The History of a Maritime Asian Trade Diaspora, 750-1400. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chavannes, Édouard. 1903. Documents sur les Tou-Kiue (Turcs) occidentaux. St. Petersbourg: Commissionnaires de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences.

———. 1907. “Les pays d’Occident d’après le ‘Heou Han chou’: Avant-propos.” T’oung pao 8, no. 2: 149–234.

Chegini, N. N. and A. V. Nikitin. 1996. “Sasanian Iran – Economy, Society, Arts and Crafts.” In History of Civilization of Central Asia: Volume III, The Crossroads of Civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750, edited by B. A. Litvinsky, 79–102. Paris: UNESCO.

Chen Ming. 2022. “Transmission of Persian Medicine into China Across the Ages.” In Routledge Handbook of Chinese Medicine, eds. Vivienne Lo, Michael Stanley-Baker, and Dolly Yang, 475–492. New York: Routledge.

Chen Sanping. 2012. Multicultural China in the Early Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Choo, Jessey Jiun-Chyi. 2009. Historicized Ritual and Ritualized History—Women’s Lifecycle in Late Medieval China (600-1000 AD). PhD dissertation, Princeton University.

Christensen, Arthur. 1941. Essai sur la demonologie iranienne. København: Ejnar Munksgaar.

Ciancaglini, Claudia A. 2008. Iranian Loanwords in Syriac. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwid Reichert Verlag.

Cobb, Paul. 2010. “The Empire in Syria, 705–763.” In The New Cambridge History of Islam, ed. Chase F. Robinson, vol. 1, 226–268. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Colless, Brian E. 1969. “Persian Merchants and Missionaries in Medieval Malaya.” Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 42, no. 2: 10–47.

Cullen, Christopher. 1980. “Joseph Needham on Chinese Astronomy.” Past & Present 87: 39–53.

Daffinà, Paolo. 1963. “L’itinerario di Hui Shȇng.” Rivista degli studi orientali 38, no. 3: 235–267.

———. 1975. “Sulla più antica diffusione del Buddismo nella Serindia e nell’Iran orientale.” In Monumentum H. S. Nyberg I, Acta Iranica 4, edited by J. Duchesne-Guillemin, Pierre Lecoq, and Jean Kellens, 179-192. Leiden: Brill.

———. 1983. “La Persia Sassanide secondo le fonti cinesi.” Rivista degli studi orientali 57: 121–170.

Daryaee, Touraj, ed. 2012. “Ruling Dynasties of Iran.” In The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History, edited by Touraj Daryaee, 390–397. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

———. 2012. “Aśoka—Model Ruler Without a Name?” In Reimagining Aśoka: Memory and History, edited by Patrick Olivelle, Janice Leoshko, and Himanshu Prabha Ray, 362–379. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Deeg, Max. 2022. “An Uncivilized Empire: Xuanzang on Persia.” In Byzantium to China: Religion, History and Culture on the Silk Roads: Studies in Honour of Samuel N.C. Lieu, edited by Ken Parry and Gunner Mikkelsen, 115–131. Leiden: Brill.

Degener, Almuth. 2005. “The Significance of the Date Palm.” In Languages of Iran: Past and Present; Iranian Studies in Memoriam David Neil MacKenzie, edited by Dieter Weber, 27–34. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Dewing, H. B., trans. 1961. Procopius: With an English Translation by H. B. Dewing, in Seven Volumes, I; History of the Wars, Books I and II. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Dodge, Bayard. 1970. The Fihrist of al-Nadīm: a Tenth-Century Survey of Muslim Culture. 2 vols. New York: Columbia University Press.

Donner, Fred M. 2011. “Qur’ânicization of Religio-Political Discourse in the Umayyad Period.” Revue Des Mondes Musulmans Et De La Méditerranée 129: 79–92.

Donner. 2015. Review of In God’s Path: The Arab Conquests and the Creation of an Islamic Empire by Robert Hoyland. Al-ʿUṣūr al-Wusṭā: The Journal of Middle East Medievalists 23, no. 1: 134–140.

Donner, Fred. 2018. “Talking about Islam’s Origins.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 81, no. 1: 1–23.

Donzel, E. J. van. 1994. Islamic Desk Reference. Leiden: Brill.

Dubs, Homer H. 1940. “A Military Contact between Chinese and Romans in 36 B.C..” T’oung Pao (Second Series) 36, no. 1: 64-80.

Drake, Francis. 1943. “Mohammedanism in the T’ang Dynasty.” Monumenta Serica 8: 1–40.

Ecsedy, István. 1977. “Early Persian Envoys in Chinese Courts.” Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientarum Hungaricae 25: 227–236.

El-Hibri, Tayeb. 2010. “The Empire in Iraq, 763–861.” In The New Cambridge History of Islam, ed. Chase F. Robinson, vol. 1, 269–304. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Emmerick, R. 1983. “Buddhism Among Iranian Peoples.” In The Cambridge History of Iran: 3(2), The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, ed. E. Yarshater, 949–964. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Enomoto, Fumio. 1994. “A Note on Kashmir as Referred to in Chinese Literature: Ji-bin.” In A Study on the Nīlamata: Aspects of Hinduism in Ancient Kashmir, edited by Ikari Yasuke, 357–365. Kyoto: Institute for Research in Humanities.

Frachtenberg, Leo J. 1918. “Allusions to Witchcraft and Other Primitive Beliefs in the Zoroastrian Literature.” In The Dastur Hoshang Memorial Volume; Being papers on Iranian Subjects, 399–453. Bombay: Fort Printing Press.

Frendo, Joseph D. 1975. Agathias: The Histories. Berlin: Walter de Gruyer.

Frenschkowski, Marco. 2015. “Christianity.” In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism, ed. Michael Strausberg and Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina, 457–475. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Feng Chengjun 冯承钧. 1982. Xiyu diming (zengding ben). 西域地名 (增訂本) [Toponyms of the Western Regions (Expanded Edition)]. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.

Finch, Michael, Sem Vermeersch, and Matthew Wegehaupt, trans. 2012. Volume 10: 文化 Korean Buddhist Culture: Accounts of a Pilgrimage, Monuments, and Eminent Monks. The Collected Works of Korean Buddhism. Edited by Roderick Whitfield. Seoul: Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism.

Floor, Willem. 2009. “Sugar.” Encyclopedia Iranica.

Forster, E. S., trans. 1929. Epitome of Roman History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Forte, Antonino. 1996a. “Kuwabara’s Misleading Thesis on Bukhara and the Family Name An 安.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 116, no 4: 645–652.

Forte, Antonino, ed. 1996b. L’Inscription Nestorienne De Si-Ngan-Fou. Italian School of East Asian Studies & Collège de France.

Frye, Richard. N. 1983. “The Political History of Iran Under the Sasanians.” In The Cambridge History of Iran: 3(1), The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, ed. E. Yarshater, 116–180. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

———. 1984. The History of Ancient Iran. München: C.H. Beck.

———. 2002. “Mapping Assyria.” In Ideologies as Intercultural Phenomena: Proceedings of the Third Annual Symposium of the Assyrian and Babylonian Intellectual Heritage Project, held in Chicago, USA, October 27-31, 2000, eds. A. Panaino, G. Pettinato (with the collaboration of G.P. Basello, A. Piras), 75–78. Milano: Universita di Bologna and IsIAO.

Fujita Toyohachi 藤田豊八. 1928. “Reiken to Daishin.” 黎軒と大秦. Shirin 史林 13, no. 1: 41–63.

Gharib, B. 2004. Sogdian Dictionary (Sogdian-Persian-English). Tehran: Farhangan Publications.

Gignoux, Philippe. 1999. “Matériaux pour une histoire du vin dans l’Iran ancien.” Cahiers de Studia Iranica 21: 35-50.

Graf, David T. 1996. “The Roman East from the Chinese Perspective.” Les Annales Archéologiques Arabes Syriennes. Revue d’Archéologie 42: 199–216.

Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Godley, Alfred Denis, trans. 1920. Herodotus, With an English Translation by A. D. Godley. London: William Heinemann.

Goodblatt, David M. 1979. “The Poll Tax in Sasanian Babylonia: The Talmudic Evidence.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 22, no. 3: 233–295.

Heirman, Ann. 2002. “Can We Trace the Early Dharmaguptakas?” T’oung Pao (Second Series) 88, no. 4/5: 396–429.

Henninger, Joseph. 2004. “Belief in Spirits Among Pre-Islamic Arabs.” In Magic and Divination in Early Islam, ed. Emilie Savage-Smith, 1–54. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Hirakawa, Akira. 1997. A Buddhist Chinese-Sanskrit Dictionary. Tokyo: The Reiyukai.

Hori Kentok. 1918. “Persian Buddhist Translators in China.” In The Dastur Hoshang Memorial Volume; Being papers on Iranian Subjects, 509–513. Bombay: Fort Printing Press.

Hoyland, Robert G. 1997. Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam. Princeton: The Darwin press, Inc.

———. 2011. Theophilus of Edessa’s Chronicle: and the Circulation of Historical Knowledge in Late Antiquity and Early Islam. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

———. 2012. Review of Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam, by Fred M. Donner. International Journal of Middle East Studies 44, no 3: 573–576.

———. 2015. In God’s Path: The Arab Creation of an Islamic Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

———. 2017. “Reflections on the Identity of the Arabian Conquerors of the Seventh-Century Middle East.” Al-ʿUṣūr al-Wusṭā 25, no. 1: 113–140.

Hsia Nai 夏鼐. 1974. “Zongshu Zhongguo chutude Bosi Sashan chao yinbi.” 综述中国出土的波斯萨珊朝银币 [A Survey of Sassanian Silver Coins in China]. Kaogu xuebao 考古学报 1974-1: 91–110.

Hu Fuchen 胡孚琛, ed. 1995. Zhonghua Daojiao dacidian 中華道教大辭典. Beijing: Zhongguo Shehuixue Chubanshe.

Hucker, Charles O. 1985. A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Ibuki Atsushi 伊吹敦. 1990. “Zoku kōsō den no zōkō ni kansuru kenkyū.” 『續高僧傳』の增廣に關する研究. Tōyō no shisō to shūkyō 東洋の思想と宗教 7: 58–74.

Itō Gikyō. 1979. “Zoroastrians’ Arrival in Japan.” Orient 15: 55–63.

———. 1986. “A Zoroastrian Proper Name from the Man’yōshū.” Orient 22: 1–15.

Jong, Albert de. 2002. “Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Zoroastrianism: a Ritual and its Interpretations.” In Sacrifice in Religious Experience, ed. Albert I. Baumgartner, 127–148. Leiden: Brill.

———. 2015a. Traditions of the Magi: Zoroastrianism in Greek and Latin Literature. Leiden: Brill.

———. 2015b. “Religion and Politics in Pre-Islamic Iran.” In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism, ed. Michael Strausberg and Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina, 85–101. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Jorgensen, John. 2005. Inventing Hui-neng, the Sixth Patriarch: Hagiography and Biography in Early Ch’an. Leiden: Brill.

Kanda Ichirō 神田喜一郞. 1939. “‘Tonkō nijū ei’ ni tsuite.”「燉煌二十詠」に就いて. Shi rin 史林 24, no. 4: 835–843.

Kent, Ronald G. 1953. Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon. New Haven: American Oriental Society.

Kitagawa Toshiaki 北川俊昭. 1998. “Tsūten hensan shimatsu kō – toku ni sono jōken no jiki wo megutte” 『通典』編纂始末考--とくにその上献の時期をめぐって. Tōyōshi kenkyū 東洋史研究 57, no. 1: 125–148.

———. 2010. “To Yū ni kansuru futatsu no boshi” 杜佑に関するふたつの墓誌. Toyama Kōtō Senmon Gakkō kiyō 富山高等専門学校紀要 1: 133–142.

Kotyk, Jeffrey. 2018a. “The Sinicization of Indo-Iranian Astrology in Medieval China.” Sino-Platonic Papers 282: 1–95.

———. 2018b. “Yixing and Pseudo-Yixing: A Misunderstood Astronomer-Monk.” Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies 31: 1–37.

———. 2019. “Chinese State and Buddhist Historical Sources on Xuanzang: Historicity and the Daci’en si sanzang fashi zhuan 大慈恩寺三藏法師傳.” T’oung Pao 通報 105: 513–544.

———. 2020a. “La nascita di Cristo e i portatori di doni persiani nelle fonti cinesi medievali.” In I NOMI DEI MAGI EVANGELICI: Considerazioni storico-linguistiche e storico-religiose intorno ai nomi dei Magi. Prolegomena ad un Namenbuch. Con contributi di Andrea Gariboldi, Jeffrey Kotyk, Paolo Ognibene e Alessia Zubani, eds. Antonio Panaino and Paolo Ognibene, 113–130. Milano: Mimesis Edizioni.

———. 2020b. “The Medieval Chinese Vision of Japan: Buddhist Perspectives in the Tang and Song Periods.” Studies in Chinese Religions 6, no. 4: 360–385.

———. 2021. “The Study of Sanskrit in Medieval East Asia: China and Japan.” Hualin International Journal of Buddhist Studies 4, no. 2: 240–273.

———. 2022. “Astronomy and Calendrical Science in Early Mikkyō in Japan: Challenges and Adaptations.” Religions 13, no. 5: 458.

Kuwata Rokurō 桑田六郎. 1954. “Nanyō jōdaishi zakkō.” 南洋上代史雜考. Ōsaka Daigaku bungakubu kiyō 大阪大学文学部紀要 3: 1–43.

Kuwayama Shōshin 桑山正進, ed. 1998. Echō Ō go Tenjikukoku den kenkyū 慧超往五天竺國傳研究 [Research on Hyecho’s Memoir of a Pilgrimage to the Five Indian Kingdoms]. Kyoto: Rinsen Shoten.

Laufer, Berthold. 1915. “Asbestos and Salamander, an Essay in Chinese and Hellenistic Folk-Lore.” T’oung Pao 16, no. 3: 299–373.

Laufer, Berthold. 1919. Sino-Iranica: Chinese Contributions to the History of Civilization in Ancient Iran, with Special Reference to the History of Cultivated Plants and Products (Field Museum of Natural History, Publication 201, Anthropological Series, Vol. XV, No. 3). Chicago: The Field Museum of Natural History.

Leslie, Donald Daniel. 1986. Islam in Traditional China: A Short History to 1800. Canberra: Canberra College of Advanced Education.

Li Rongxi, trans. 1996. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions. Moraga: BDK America Inc.

Lindstedt, Ilkka. 2015. “Muhājirūn as a Name for the First/Seventh Century Muslims.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 74, no. 1: 67–73.

Liu Xueyao 劉學銚. 2007. “Du Huan Jingxing ji youguan Xiyu (Zhongya) zhi jieshuo” 杜環《經行記》有關西域(中亞)之解說 [Explanation of the Western Regions (Central Asia) in Du Huan’s Jingxing ji]. Zhongguo bianzheng 中國邊政 [China Border Area Studies] 169: 19–41.

Lu Jianfang 陆建芳, Liu Yunhui 刘云辉, and Han Jianwu 韩建武. 2014. Zhongguo yuqi tongshi: Sui Tang Wudai juan. 中国玉器通史·隋唐五代卷. Shenzhen: Haitian Chubanshe.

Lung, Rachel. 2011. Interpreters in Early Imperial China. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Co.

Ma Tai-Loi 馬泰來. 1978. “The Authenticity of the ‘Nan-Fang Ts'ao-mu Chuang’ 南方草木狀.” T’oung Pao 64, no. 4/5: 218–252.

MacKenzie, D.N. 1986. A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press. Reprint with corrections of 1971 edition.

Maksymiuk, Katarzyna. 2018. “The Two Eyes of the Earth: The Problem of Respect in Sasanid-Roman Relations.” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 58: 591–606.

Margoliouth, D. S. 1903. “An Early Judæo-Persian Document from Khotan, in the Stein Collection, with Other Early Persian Documents.” The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 735–760.

Markwart, Josef. 1938. Wehrot und Arang; untersuchungen zur mythischen und geschichtlichen landeskunde von Ostiran. Leiden: Brill.

McCrindle, J. W. 1897. The Christian Topography of Cosmas, An Egyptian Monk. London: The Hakluyt Society.

McRae, John R. 2003. Seeing Through Zen: Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Monier-Williams, M. 1899. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages. New ed., Oxford: The Clarendon Press.

Nakamura Hajime 中村元. 1975. Bukkyōgo daijiten 佛教語大辞典. 2 vols. Tokyo Shosekikan.

Nicolini-Zani, Matteo. 2022. The Luminous Way to the East: Texts and History of the First Encounter of Christianity with China. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nienhauser, William, Jr., ed. 2019. The Grand Scribe’s Records, Volume XI: The Memoirs of Han China, Part IV. Translated by Clara Luhn, Edward Shaughnessy, Guilia Baccini, Hans van Ess, Jakob Pöllath, Kathrin Leese-Messing, Maddalena Barenghi, Stephen Durrant, and William Nienhauser, Jr. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Nomura Takumi 野村卓美. 2020. “Rakuyō garanki ‘Seiiki shamon Bodaidaruma’ ‘Perushiakoku kojin’ kara Zoku kōsō den ‘Bodaidaruma. Nan Tenjiku baramon shu’ he: Bodaidaruma denki no kiso kenkyū.” 『洛陽伽藍記』「西域沙門菩提達磨」「波斯国胡人」から『続高僧伝』「菩提達摩。南天竺婆羅門種」へ: 菩提達磨伝記の基礎研究. Bungei ronsō / Ōtani Daigaku bungei gakkai hen 文芸論叢 / 大谷大学文芸学会 編 95: 1–17.

Odani Nakao 小谷仲男 and Suganuma Aigo 菅沼愛語. 2011. “Shin Tōjo Seiiki den yakuchū (2)” 『新唐書』西域伝訳注 (2) [An Annotated Translation of the Western Regions of the Xin-Tangshu (2)]. Kyōto Joshi Daigaku Daigakuin bungaku kenkyūka kenkyū kiyō shigaku-hen 京都女子大学大学院文学研究科研究紀要 史学編 [Kyoto Women’s University Bulletin of Literary Research, History Edition] 10: 127–193.

Ogawa Yōichi 小川陽一. 1966. “Tonkō ni okeru kenkyō byō no saiki.” 敦煌における祆教廟の祭祀. Tōhō shūkyō 東方宗教 27: 23–34.

Omidsalar, Mahmoud. 2011. Charms. Encyclopedia Iranica.

———. 2012. “Genie.” Encyclopedia Iranica.

Park, Hyondo. 2019. “Chapter 7: From a Persian Barbarian to a Superior Sage to Chinese Sages: the Image of the Prophet in Ma Zhu’s Shengzan.” In Studies in Islamic Historiography, ed. Sami G. Massoud, 192–224. Leiden: Brill.

Park, Hyunhee. 2012. Mapping the Chinese and Islamic Worlds: Cross-cultural Exchange in Pre-modern Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Parker, E. H. 1899. “Chinese Contributions to the Kaaba Question.” The Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review, and Oriental and Colonial Record, Third Series 8, nos. 15 & 16: 169–174.

Panaino, Antonio. 1986. “An Aspect of Sacrifice in the Avesta.” East and West 36, no. 1/3: 271–274.

———. 1990. Tištrya: Part I, The Avestan Hymn to Sirius. Roma: Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.

———. 2005. “Sheep, Wheat, and Wine: An Achaemenian Antecedent of the Sasanian Sacrifices pad ruwān.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute (New Series) 19: 111–118.

———. 2013. “Pre-Islamic Iranian Calendrical Systems in the Context of Iranian Religious and Scientific History.” In The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, edited by D.T. Potts, 953–974. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

———. 2020. “aētāsә.tē ātarә zaoϑrā. On the Mazdean Animal and Symbolic Sacrifices: Their Problems, Timing and Restrictions.” In Aux sources des liturgies indo-iraniennes, edited by Céline Redard, Juanjo Ferrer-Losilla, Hamid Moein and Philippe Swennen, 119–163. Liège: Presses Universitaires de Liège.

———. 2021. “The ‘Solar’ Eye of the Dēn.” In Kratèr: Quaderni di cultural e tradizioni I; Corpi di luce, ed. Alessandro Grossato, 49–65. Villa Verucchio: Pazzini Editore.

Pashazanous, Hamidreza. 2021. “Sasanians at the Court of the Liang Dynasty.” Journal of Historical Researches of Iran and Islam 15, no. 29: 102–130.

Payne Smith, R., Quatremere, S.M, Bernstein, G.H, Lorsbach, G.W., Arnoldi, A.J, Agrell, C.M, Field, F., Roediger, A. 1879. Thesaurus Syriacus. Oxonii: e typographeo Clarendoniano.

Piacentini, Valeria Fiorani. 1992. Merchants, Merchandise and Military power in the Persian Gulf: Sūriyānj/Shahriyāj--Sīrāf. Roma: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei.

Pigott, Vincent C. 2011. “ĀHAN.” Encyclopedia Iranica Online.

Piras, Andrea. 2021. “Apocalyptic Imagery and Royal Propaganda in Khosrow II’s Letter to the Byzantine Emperor Maurice.” Journal of Persianate Studies 14: 178–195.

Potts, Daniel T. 1988. “Arabia and the Kingdom of Characene.” In Araby the Blest: Studies in Arabian Archaeology, edited by D.T. Potts, 137–167. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.

———. 2006. “Tigris River.” Encyclopedia Iranica (Online). Last Updated: 15 August, 2006. Accessed 23 August, 2020.

Pulleyblank, Edwin George. 1952. “A Sogdian Colony in Inner Mongolia.” T’oung Pao 41, no. 4/5: 317–356.

———. 1962a. “The Consonantal System of Old Chinese.” Asia Major 9, no. 1: 5–144.

———. 1962b. “The Consonantal System of Old Chinese: Part II.” Asia Major 9, no. 2: 206–265.

———. 1989a. “AN SHIH-KAO.” In Encyclopædia Iranica I/9, 1000–1001. See online version (updated 2011):

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